Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. According to Textbooks the Artificial Intelligence is “the study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.
The term Artificial Intelligence was coined by John McCarthy, in 1956, who defines it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.
The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligencethe sapience of Homo sapienscan be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and limits of scientific hubris, issues which have been addressed by myth,fiction and philosophy since antiquity.
Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism, but has also suffered setbacksand, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science. All research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other Subfields have grown up around particular institutions, the work of individual researchers, the solution of specific problems, longstanding differences of opinion about how AI should be done and the application of widely differing tools.
The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or “strong AI”) is still a long-term goal of (some) research